Indonesian Provinces SDGs Composite Index: Lampung Province Analysis

Reny Andriati, Arief Anshory Yusuf


Publications of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have mainly been conducted at a national level and  separately for each goal. No prior research has been done on SDGs composite index at a provincial level in Indonesia. It is necessary to create a composite index that presents a single value at the provincial level to enable regional evaluation. The Indonesia Province SDGs composite index is developed from indicators based on Statistics Indonesia gathered from several publications. The data sources are the National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) and the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) which were linked surveys held in 2018. Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis are used as the methods to select the indicators of the SDGs. Those selected indicators are then normalized using the min-max method and subsequently weighted using factor loading derived from the principal component analysis. Finally, the indicators are aggregated using an arithmetic mean to determine the composite index. The Indonesia Province SDGs composite index is an approach to measure achievement of SDGs agenda. In addition, each goal achievement is summarized as a goal index. The SDGs composite index for Lampung Province is 52.2%, meaning that Lampung Province is 52.2% of the way to fully achieving the SDGs, according to the measures used to calculate this index. The findings on goal index suggest that development is highly requested on public services such as housing and water supply.



SDGs; composite index; principal component analysis; factor analysis

Full Text:



Asheim, GB 1999, ‘Economic analysis of sustainability’ in Towards sustainable development: on the goals of development - and the conditions of sustainability, eds WM Lafferty & O Langhelle, Springer, pp. 156-172.

Badan Pusat Statistik 2018, Indikator Tujuan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan (TPB) Indonesia 2018, Jakarta.

Campagnolo, L, Carraro, C, Eboli, F, & Farnia, LL 2015, ‘Assessing SDGs: a new methodology to measure sustainability’, Nota di Lavaro 89.2015, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM). viewed 6 December 2018,

Campagnolo, L, Carraro, C, Eboli, F, Farnia, L, Parrado, R, & Pierfederici, R 2018, ‘The ex-ante evaluation of achieving sustainable development goals’, Social Indicators Research, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 73-116. doi:

Ciegis, R, Ramanauskiene, J, & Martinkus, B 2009a, ‘The concept of sustainable development and its use for sustainability scenarios’, Engineering Economics, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 28-37.

Ciegis, R, Ramanauskiene, J, & Startiene, G 2009b, ‘Theoretical reasoning of the use of indicators and indices for sustainable development assessment’, Engineering Economics, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 33-40.

De Muro, P, Mazziotta, M, & Pareto, A 2011, ‘Composite indices of development and poverty: An application to MDGs’, Social Indicators Research, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 1-18. doi:

Farnia, L, Cavalli, L, & Vergalli, S 2019 ‘Italian Cities SDGs Composite Index: A Methodological Approach to Measure the Agenda 2030 at Urban Level’, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Working Paper 018.2019. viewed 13 April 2020,

Fouda, YE & Elkhazendar, DM 2019, ‘A criterion for modelling the ‘live-and-work’city index using sustainable development indicators’, International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 24-47. doi:

Härdle, WK & Simar, L 2003, Applied multivariate statistical analysis, Springer.

Mazziotta, M & Pareto, A 2013, ‘Methods for constructing composite indices: One for all or all for one’, RIEDS - Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica - Italian Review of Economics, Demography and Statistics, SIEDS Societa’ Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 67-80.

Morse, S 2016, ‘Measuring the success of sustainable development indices in terms of reporting by the global press’, Social Indicators Research, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 359-375. doi:

Nhemachena, C, Matchaya, G, Nhemachena, CR, Karuaihe, S, Muchara, B & Nhlengethwa, S 2018, ‘Measuring baseline agriculture-related sustainable development goals index for Southern Africa’, Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 3, p.849. doi:

Nicolai, S, Bhatkal, T, Hoy, C, & Aedy, T 2016, 17 May, ‘Projecting progress: The SDGs in Asia and the Pacific’, ODI Development Progress, Overseas Development Institute. viewed 3 January 2019,

OECD 2008, Handbook on constructing composite indicators: Methodology and user guide, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. viewed 18 December 2020,

OECD 2017, Measuring distance to the SGD targets: An assessment of where OECD countries stand, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. viewed 8 January 2020,

Paoli, AD & Addeo, F 2019, ‘Assessing SDGs: A methodology to measure sustainability’, Athens Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 6, no. 3, pp.229-250. doi:

Prescott-Allen, R 2001, The wellbeing of nations: A country-by-country index of quality of life and the environment, Island Press.

Robert, KW, Parris, TM, & Leiserowitz, AA 2005, ‘What is sustainable development? Goals, indicators, values, and practice’, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 8-21. doi:

Sanga, D, Dosso, B, & Gui-Diby, S 2011, ‘Tracking progress towards statistical capacity building efforts: The African statistical development index’, International Statistical Review, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 303-329. doi:

Schmidt-Traub, G, Kroll, C, Teksoz, K, Durand-Delacre, D, & Sachs, JD 2017, ‘National baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals assessed in the SDG Index and Dashboards’, Nature Geoscience, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 547-555.

Statistics Indonesia 2018, Environmental pillar: Indicator of sustainable development 2018 [Pilar lingkungan: Indikator pembangunan berkelanjutan 2018], Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta.

United Nations 2015, Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development, New York. viewed 2 January 2019,


  • There are currently no refbacks.